The production of fabric is one of the most important inventions in human history and has been proven for 32,000 years, considerably longer than pottery.
How a Jacquard machine works
The Jacquard machine was named after its inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752-1834). He invented the device for individually controlling the warp threads and thus for producing large-scale patterns. The pattern size depends on the number of sinkers to which the harness threads are attached by means of heddles. The warp threads are moved through their eyelets and controlled by the Jacquard machine hanging above the loom.
In order to control this machine, corresponding binding cartridges or binding files must be created. To do this, you need to have a first-class knowledge of binding technology and a technical understanding.
I am a professional in this field.
Examples for the use of Jacquard machines: Damasks, customised designs for table linen, elaborate weave repeats for fashion fabrics, lace borders, possibly technical textiles
How a dobby works
Dobbies are shedding devices on weaving machines. They are used when the control of the heald frames by eccentric or cam discs is no longer sufficient due to the size of the pattern. In other words, when the weft repeat is greater than 12. 30 - 32 heald frames can be controlled from punched cards or discs. Production with dobby machines is used when weaving simple patterns and weaves. Most fabrics on the market are dobby woven as they do not involve complex weaves. They are either plain for further dyeing or woven in colours, for example for men's shirts (striped or checked). Here too, knowledge of weave technology is required, but it cannot be compared with the scope of the elaborate jacquard weaving.
Dobby weaves are used as print funds or for simple basic weaves: printed fashion fabrics in plain weave, denim fabrics (twill weave), colourful woven shirt fabrics
Textures are the basis of fabrics
A weave is the way in which the warp and weft threads in a fabric intersect. The crossing points are called weave points. The weave repeat is the part of the weave that specifies the way in which the warp and weft threads are crossed until they are repeated. It is the smallest unit of the weave.
The 3 basic weaves on which all further developments are based are called:
Canvas, twill, atlas
In the weave development, the warp elevation is shown with a red dot. The warp sink remains empty or white.
With over 5000 weaves for jacquard and dobby fabrics, I have an extensive archive of effect fabrics from the home textiles and fashion sectors.
Texture technology is a science in itself. Normally, a textile designer is rarely also a textile technician who is 100% familiar with binding technology. I am both, as I am interested in technology and this gives me far more creative options for designing.
Calculations and tables
Another important step after patterning and creating the binding cartridges is the preparation of a warping certificate and/or weft certificate. The warping certificate is the design specification for warping, which contains the colour thread sequence, yarn type, yarn count, repeat size, total thread count and warping length. The coloured warps are warped according to these specifications and wound onto the weaving beams. At the same time, so-called weft letters can be written for coloured weft sequences in order to achieve a harmonious sequence when designing. This is advantageous when developing a dégradé. Photo: simple weft letter
Getting bogged down: It's no easy task to keep the pieces of paper taut. The threads are long. It can happen that you get "tangled up" when stretching them. This means that the pieces of paper get mixed up and get tangled up in each other.
You can book training courses in weaving and weaving technology here.
Loom with jacquard machine hanging over it so that large-area repeats can be woven.
Electronic looms and Jacquard machines. The green threads are the harness that connects the two machines.
Cotton yarns in weaving preparation.
Cotton weft yarns for damask fabrics.
Jacquard machines are not only very loud but also impressively high. The looms below are connected to the jacquard machines above by the harness threads. If necessary, the weaver can climb up to the machine.
Damask weaving mill for jacquard fabric.
Many steps have to be taken before a weaving machine can run. Every single warp thread has to be fed through the heddles by hand.
Green warp threads with shedding on a dobby weaving machine.
African damask during the weaving process. This fabric is jacquard woven.